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View the Private Copying Global Study

The Private Copying Global Study, a unique publication by the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (Cisac). It is the first analysis of private copying systems on a global scale. It examines the laws of 191 countries on five continents.

Private copying levy around the world

Private copying remuneration now represents 7% of the total royalties collected in Europe. And 75 countries in the world have adopted a private copying levy system.

Germany was the first country to introduce the private copying exception in the early 1960s, and then introduced a system of financial compensation on the sale of audio and video recording media in 1965. France followed suit in 1985 with the Lang Law.

The share devoted to cultural and social action varies according to the country: Austria (50% cultural and social), Croatia (30%), Denmark (33%), France (25%), Estonia (10%), Hungary (7%), Japan (20%), Burkina Faso (50%), Lithuania (25%), the Netherlands (15%), Portugal (20%), Russia (20%), Italy (50% of sums coming from video).

In Europe

26 of the 27 EU Member States have adopted private copying legislation. Among them, 21 States have an effective private copying remuneration scheme.

The European Court of Justice has recognised the legitimacy of the private copying levy. Indeed, it considered that compensating rights holders represents an obligation for Member States (Stichting de Thuiskopie/Opus, June 2011).